The modern world cannot be imagined without a variety of machine installations and mechanisms that greatly facilitate the production processes in the vast number of branches of the national economy. Typically, this type of equipment is equipped with mechanisms of friction and adhesion, which wear out for a long time due to the intensive interaction of metal elements. To maintain them at the proper level, oil was used as the lubricant. Over time, and the introduction of new technologies (including electrical equipment), oil is also used as an insulating liquid, since it practically does not conduct current. Consequently, the importance and necessity of this product have become extremely important for many industrialists. Consider what kind of oils are and what functions they perform.
Oils are of organic origin (vegetable and animal), mineral and synthetic. Organic is less common than the others used to lubricate the mechanisms of industrial equipment since they do not have sufficiently high thermal properties. However, sometimes they “work” in combination with mineral oils. The latter is the most common lubricant used for machinery. The raw material for its production is turbine oil filtration. The effectiveness of mineral oils is enhanced by a variety of additives that are added to the product before it is fed into the equipment.
The most “new” are synthetic oils. These are products of chemical synthesis with the use of carbons, silicones and other chemicals. And although the production of this kind of oil is a laborious and costly process, the quality of the final product pays off. This oil is practically not contaminated and does not oxidize. In some cases, a mixture of synthetic and mineral oils is used, which saves and preserves the high quality of the lubricant.
Over the past few decades, many new devices and machines have appeared, the technological maintenance of which is an important stage in their work. Depending on the functions performed, various requirements are imposed on the oils: viscosity, durability, operating temperature, corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance, chemical composition, etc.
So, possessing certain properties of oil, apply before this or that type of equipment and classify on groups:
- hydraulic, etc.
Causes and consequences of contaminants in the oil
But what kind of lubricant would not be discussed, in the process of long-term operation or storage in one way or another, it becomes contaminated? The quality of the oil is significantly reduced when there are mechanical impurities, water, gas, technological products, and oxidation products in it.
The presence of moisture in the oil reduces its anti-corrosion properties. At low temperatures, the water in the oil crystallizes, which can damage parts and mechanisms. Also, in the presence of moisture, a process called electrical erosion can be observed. Since the conductivity of the current in the presence of moisture in the oil increases, then in the dielectric, the occurrence of current pulses is possible, under the action of which the metal particles lag behind the mechanisms. Microorganisms can also form in water molecules, which also reduce the characteristics of the oil.
Gases in oil are of three types:
- dissolved atmospheric air;
- process gases;
- gases are the products of chemical reactions that occur in the lubricant.
Depending on the reaction of gas inclusions with other components of the oil, their effect on the product may be different. The flow of cavitation processes leads to the destruction of the equipment.
The most negative impact on the quality of the lubricating material is provided by mechanical particles. A large number of oil contributes to abrasive processes, which accelerates the wear of parts and all equipment in general. Basically, such pollution occurs as a result of various chemical reactions, as well as the chipping of particles. Solid particles in the oil are formed as a result of chemical reactions, corrosion, chipping of metal parts. Observing the heating temperature at an acceptable level is considered an important stage in the operation of oil-filled equipment, because under the influence of too high temperatures in the oil, various acids, asphaltenes, resins, etc. are formed. There is also the flow of other, slower processes, which leads to a rapid “aging” of the oil.